Nelson Mandela, who spent 28 years in prison between 1962 and 1990 for opposing the South African apartheid system, was born on July 18, 1918 in Mvezo, South Africa, to Chief Henry Mandela of the Madiba clan. He gave up his chiefdom to become a lawyer. Mandela faced harsh prison conditions to break his resolve, but he continued to oppose South Africa’s apartheid laws.
He was released from prison in 1990, after which he helped broker the end of apartheid and became the country’s first black president from 1994 to 1999. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993 and in 2009, the UN declared its anniversary. as Nelson Mandela International Day to honor his legacy.
Here are some other historic events that happened on July 18.
English novelist William Makepeace Thackeray, known for his work Vanity Fair (1847-48) and The History of Henry Esmond, Esq. (1852), was born in Calcutta, India, to parents of Anglo-Indian descent.
1817 | English novelist Jane Austen, known for the classics Sense and Sensibility (1811) and Pride and Prejudice (1813), died on July 18, 1817 in Winchester, Hampshire, aged 41.
1914 | After successfully leading campaigns of passive resistance in South Africa, Mahatma Gandhi finally left the country by boat from Cape Town. He went to England from where he returned to India in January 1915.
1925 | Nazi leader Adolf Hitler published the first volume of his political manifesto, Mein Kampf, on July 18, 1925. The book, along with its second volume published two years later, became the bible of Nazism in the German Third Reich.
1947 | The Indian Independence Act, based on Lord Louis Mountbatten’s plan of June 3, 1947, was passed by the British Parliament on July 5. However, it was signed by King George VI on July 18.
1968 | Intel Corporation is founded by Robert N. Noyce and Gordon E. Moore in Mountain View, California. The company planned to make solid-state memory more practical and affordable.
1976 | Romanian gymnast Nadia Comaneci, just 14, earned a perfect score of 10 at the Montreal Olympics. She became the first gymnast to win a perfect score in an Olympic gymnastics event.
1980 | Rohini 1, India’s first satellite, is launched into orbit. The satellite provided data on the performance and range of the fourth stage.
2013 | Sinking under billions of dollars in debt, the city of Detroit has filed for Chapter 9 bankruptcy protection in federal court. It was the largest such depot ever recorded for an American city. The following year, Detroit officially emerged from bankruptcy.
2018 | In one of the most aggressive regulatory actions against US tech giants, the European Union has fined Google $5.1 billion for abusing its power in the mobile phone market.
(Edited by : Priyanka Deshpande)